Alcohol statistics

Read all the latest stats about alcohol in the UK.

Alcohol in the UK

In England there are an estimated 586,780 dependent drinkers. Only 18% are receiving treatment.

  • 24% of adults in England and Scotland regularly drink over the Chief Medical Officer’s low-risk guidelines [1, 16], and 27% of drinkers in Great Britain binge drink on their heaviest drinking days (over 8 units for men and over 6 units for women) [2].
  • In 2017, 20% of the population reported not drinking at all [2] and overall consumption has fallen by around 16% since 2004 [3].
  • In the UK, in 2016 there were 9,214 alcohol-related deaths (around 15 per 100,000 people). The mortality rates are highest among people aged 55-69 [4].
  • In the UK in 2018 there were 7,551 alcohol-specific deaths (around 11.9 per 100,000 people). This is the second-highest level since the records began in 2001 [14].
  • In England, there are an estimated 586,780 dependent drinkers (2017/18) [5], of whom 82% are not accessing treatment [6].
  • Alcohol misuse is the biggest risk factor for death, ill-health and disability among 15-49 year-olds in the UK, and the fifth biggest risk factor across all ages [1].
  • While the price of alcohol has increased by 28% over the last 10 years, it remains 74% more affordable than it was in 1987 [7].

Alcohol and health

Alcohol is a causal factor in more than 60 medical conditions.

  • Alcohol is a causal factor in more than 60 medical conditions, including: mouth, throat, stomach, liver and breast cancers; high blood pressure, cirrhosis of the liver; and depression [1].
  • In England in 2018/19, there were 1.26 million hospital admissions related to alcohol consumption (7.4% of all hospital admissions), 8% higher than the previous year. In the same period there were 358,000 admissions where the main reason was due to alcohol, 19% higher than ten years previously [22, 23].
  • In Wales in 2017/18, there were 54,900 alcohol-related hospital admissions and 14,600 alcohol-specific admissions [17].
  • In Wales the rate of alcohol-specific hospital admissions is 3.3 times higher in the most deprived areas [34].
  • In Scotland in 2018/19, there were around 38,000 alcohol-related hospital admissions [19].
  • In the UK in 2018, alcohol-specific death rates were highest among 60-64 year-old females and 55-59 year-old males [14].
  • In 2018, Scotland’s death rate was 20.8 per 100,000, England’s was 10.7 per 100,000, Wales’ was 13.1 per 100,000 [14].
  • In 2018, in Northern Ireland 1.8% of all deaths were alcohol-specific deaths [36].
  • In 2018, the alcohol-specific death rate in the UK for males was 16.4 per 100,000 and 7.6 per 100,000 for females [14].
  • Alcohol-specific deaths made up 9.6% of all deaths in the 40-44 age group in the UK in 2018 [14].
  • In the UK in 2018, the alcohol-specific mortality rate of men in the most disadvantaged socio-economic class was 3.9 times higher than for men in the least disadvantaged class, while for women the figure was 3.3 times higher [24].
  • In Scotland in 2017, alcohol-related mortality in the 45-74 age group was 8 times higher in the most deprived areas than the least deprived [16].
  • In England and Wales, 63% of all deaths relating to the misuse of alcohol in 2016 were caused by alcohol liver disease [9].
  • Northern Ireland’s alcohol-specific death rate was 17% higher in 2018 than in 2008 [36].
  • Alcohol-specific deaths in Northern Ireland's most deprived areas are over three times higher than in the least deprived areas (27.4 compared with 7.6 deaths per 100,000) [36].
  • Scotland is the only country to experience a decrease in death rates since 2001, but still has the highest rate of alcohol-specific deaths in 2017. Scotland’s alcohol-specific death rate was 21% lower in 2017 than in 2001 [14].
  • The alcohol-related mortality rate in England in 2018 was 46.5/100,000, equivalent to 24,720 deaths [8].
  • In England in 2018, there were over 314,000 potential years of life lost related to alcohol consumption, the highest level since 2011 [8].
  • In 2015 in Scotland, there were 3,705 deaths attributable to alcohol among adults over 16 years old which is 6.5% of the total number of deaths [14].
  • In 2018 in Scotland, there were 1,136 alcohol-specific deaths, up 1% from 2017 [16].
  • In Wales, approximately 1,500 deaths are attributable to alcohol consumption each year, which is 1 in 20 of all deaths [14].
  • Hospital admissions due to alcoholic liver disease in England have increased by 43% in the last 10 years [25].
  • The rate of older people over the age of 65 admitted to hospitals in England for alcohol-related conditions has risen by 14% since 2008/09, while the rate of alcohol-specific admissions for under-18s fell by 54% between 2008/09 and 2015/16 [8].

Treatment

In 2018/19 in England, 75,555 people were in treatment at specialist alcohol misuse services, a fall of 18% since 2013/14.

  • In 2018/19 in England, 75,555 people were in treatment at specialist alcohol misuse services, a fall of 18% since 2013/14 [10].
  • In 2016/17 in England, around 40% of people who successfully completed treatment did not return within 6 months [6].
  • The average age for people in alcohol treatment is 46, 60% of people in alcohol treatment are male, and 85% are white British, compared with 80% of the population. 4% were other white ethnicities, and 7% from non-white ethnic groups [10].
  • Around 1 in 5 people in alcohol treatment reported having a disability, which is similar to the general population [10].
  • 10% of new presentations to treatment had a housing problem [10].
  • 47% of those in alcohol treatment live in the 30% most deprived areas [10].
  • In England, in 2018/19, females represent 40% of those in treatment, although only 23% of females in the population have problematic alcohol use [10].
  • 8,945 people in alcohol-only treatment are aged 60 years and over (11% of the total) [10].
  • In 2018, there were 170,000 alcohol-related prescription items dispensed in England, 27% higher than in 2008 [7].
  • In 2017/18, 14,805 people in alcohol treatment received pharmacological interventions, mostly to enable safe withdrawal from alcohol dependence [10].
  • Approximately 61% of clients starting treatment were self-referrals. 24% were from health services and social care, which includes 14% from GPs [10].
  • 1 in 5 people in alcohol treatment in 2018/19 in England were parents living with dependent children [10].
  • 54% of people in alcohol treatment also need mental health treatment, with 19% of them not receiving any mental health treatment [10].
  • 31% of people in alcohol treatment in England in 2018/19 dropped out before successfully completing treatment [10].
  • In Northern Ireland from 2007 to 2018, there has been a fall in the proportion of people in treatment for alcohol only, compared with drugs only or drugs and alcohol. In 2007, 67% of those in treatment were for alcohol only, whereas in 2017 43% of those in treatment were for alcohol only [28].

Crime

In 2015/16 in England, victims believed the offender(s) to be under the influence of alcohol in 39% of all violent incidents.

  • In 2018/19, 39% of people in England and Wales said they witnessed any type of anti-social behaviour in their local area. 11% of this anti-social behaviour was alcohol-related. 12% of people said that there is a very or fairly big problem in their area with people being drunk or rowdy in public places [27].
  • In 2018/19 in England and Wales, the area in which people perceived the greatest problem with people being drunk or rowdy in public places was Northamptonshire (19%), followed by London and the West Midlands (18%) and Cambridgeshire (17%). The places in which the fewest people perceived this problem were Cumbria (4%), Nottinghamshire (5%) and Suffolk and North Wales (6%) [32].
  • In 2017/18, in 39% of violent incidents the victim believed the offender to be under the influence of alcohol [31].
  • In 2017/18 in England and Wales, in 24% (39,000 incidents) of robbery cases the victim believed the offender to be under the influence of alcohol. This figure increased from 17% or 25,000 cases in 2015/16 [26].
  • In 2016/17 in England and Wales, 12.4% of theft offences, 20.6% of criminal damage and 21.5% of hate crimes were alcohol-related [15].
  • In England and Wales, alcohol-related violent incidents are more likely to be reported to the police than those which are not alcohol-related [15].
  • In 2016/17 in England and Wales, in 35.8% of sexual assault cases the offender was under the influence of alcohol [15].
  • In 2017/18 in England and Wales, victims of partner abuse reported that the offender was under the influence of alcohol in 17% of incidents [33].
  • In 2015/16 in England, victims believed the offender(s) to be under the influence of alcohol in 39% of all violent incidents, down from a peak of 55% in 2009/10. In Wales, the figure is higher, at 49% in 2015/16, down from a peak of 73% in 2006/07 [11].
  • In 2014-2016 in England and Wales, alcohol-related violent incidents made up 67% of violent incidents which take place at the weekend and 68% of those which take place during the evening and night [12].
  • In 2014-2016 in England and Wales, 91% of violent incidents which took place in or near a pub or club were alcohol-related, and 67% of those which took place in public spaces were alcohol-related [12].
  • In 2017/18 in Scotland, in 46% of violent crime incidents the offender was under the influence of alcohol [20].
  • In 2018 in Great Britain, there were 8,700 drink-drive casualties and 5,900 drink-drive accidents. In the long-term, these figures have been falling since 1979 from a peak of around 31,000 casualties and 19,000 accidents [13].

Drinking behaviours

Since 2005, the overall amount of alcohol consumed in the UK, the proportion of people reporting drinking, and the amount drinkers report consuming have all fallen. This trend is especially pronounced among younger drinkers.

  • Since 2005, the overall amount of alcohol consumed in the UK, the proportion of people reporting drinking, and the amount drinkers report consuming have all fallen. This trend is especially pronounced among younger drinkers [2].
  • In England in 2018, 82% of adults drank alcohol in the past 12 months, with 49% of adults drinking at least once a week [35].
  • In 2017 in Great Britain, an estimated 29.2 million adults drank alcohol in the week before being surveyed, 57% of the population. Around 10% drank on five or more days in the previous week [2].
  • In 2017, men are more likely to drink than women and those aged 45-64 are the most likely to drink, while those aged 16-24 are the least likely to drink [2].
  • Since 2005, teetotalism has increased among those aged 16-44, but has fallen by 5% for those aged 65 and over [2].
  • Although 16-24 year olds are less likely to have drunk alcohol in the past week, when they do drink, they are more likely to drink at high levels (2017) [2].
  • 77% of the highest earners report drinking in the previous week, compared to less than 45% of the lowest earners [2].
  • In 2018, people in the East of England are the most likely to report drinking in the last week, while those in the North East are most likely to binge when they do drink [35].
  • Those in Scotland are the most likely to binge drink, with those in England the least likely [2].
  • Those in England are the most likely to have drunk in the past week, with those in Wales the least likely [2].
  • The more money people earn, the more likely they are to drink alcohol, with around 90% of people living in the least deprived areas drinking, and only 71% of those in the most deprived areas doing so [35].
  • In Scotland in 2018, 9.9 litres of pure alcohol were sold per adult (16 years old and above), equivalent to 19 units per adult per week. This is a 3% decrease from 2017 and the lowest level in Scotland since 1994. This coincides with the introduction of Minimum Unit Pricing in Scotland in May 2018 [16].
  • In England and Wales in 2018, 9.1 litres of pure alcohol were sold per adult, equivalent to 17.5 units per adult per week.
  • In Northern Ireland in 2013, 73% of adults reported drinking alcohol, with 27% abstaining [18].
  • 82% of Northern Irish 18-29 year olds reported drinking compared to 58% of 60-75 year olds, but 60-75 year olds were more likely to drink everyday (16% versus 1.5%) [18].
  • In Wales, 18% of the population drink over 14 units per week [34].
  • In England, 40% of adults drink over 14 units per week [35].

Young people

In 2016, 23% of 15 year olds reported having been drunk in the last four weeks.

  • In 2018 in England, 44% of pupils aged 11-15 in England reported having ever drunk alcohol. Of these, 14% of 11 year-olds reporting ever having drunk an alcoholic drink, compared to 70% of 15 year-olds [29].
  • 6% of pupils said they drank alcohol at least once per week, but for 15 year-olds this went up to 14% [29].
  • In 2018 in England, pupils aged 11-15 who drank alcohol in the past week, consumed an average of 10.3 units [29].
  • 21% of pupils who drank in the last week were estimated to have drunk more than 15 units [29].
  • Girls were more likely to have been drunk in the last four weeks than boys [29].
  • 22% of 15 year olds reported having been drunk in the last four weeks [29].
  • Of pupils who obtained alcohol in the last four weeks, 71% were given it by parents or guardians, 49% were given it by friends and 48% took it from home with permission [29].
  • Of pupils who currently drink, 66% said they drank with parents and 58% said they drank with friends [29].
  • 61% of pupils who currently drink said that they never buy alcohol [29].
  • In 2009/10 in Wales, 17% of males and 14% of females aged 11-16 reported drinking alcohol at least once a week [30].
  • In 2018 in Scotland, 71% of 15 year olds and 36% of 13 year olds reported ever having had an alcoholic drink, but fell to 20% and 6% respectively for those who drank alcohol in the last week [21].
  • In Scotland an estimated 36,000 to 51,000 children live with a parent or guardian whose alcohol use is potentially problematic [16].

References

[1] Burton, R. et al. (2016). The Public Health Burden of Alcohol and the Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Alcohol Control Policies: An Evidence Review.

[2] Office for National Statistics (2018). Adult drinking habits in Great Britain: 2017.

[3] British Beer and Pub Association (2016). Statistical Handbook, 2016.

[4] Office for National Statistics (2017). Alcohol-related deaths in the UK: registered in 1994 to 2016.

[5] Public Health England (2019). Estimates of alcohol dependent adults in England.

[6] Public Health England (2018). Public Health Dashboard.

[7] NHS Digital (2019). Statistics on Alcohol, England, 2020. Part 7: Expenditure and affordability.

[8] Public Health England (2019). Local Alcohol Profiles for England.

[9] Office for National Statistics (2017). Number of deaths caused by alcoholic liver disease and other causes associated with the misuse of alcohol, deaths registered in England and Wales, 2016.

[10] Public Health England (2018). Adult substance misuse treatment statistics 2018 to 2019: report.

[11] Office for National Statistics (2017). Estimates of Violent incidents where the victim believed the offender(s) to be under the influence of alcohol or drugs in England and Wales, year ending March 2006 to year ending March 2016 Crime Survey for England and Wales.

[12] Office for National Statistics (2017). Overview of violent crime and sexual offences.

[13] Department for Transport (2019). Estimated number of reported drink drive accidents and casualties in Great Britain: 1979-2017.

[14] Office for National Statistics (2018). Alcohol-specific deaths in the UK: registered in 2018.

[15] Office for National Statistics (2018). Data on alcohol related incidents, years ending March 2011 to March 2017, Crime Survey for England and Wales.

[16] Scottish Government (2019). Scottish Health Survey 2018: volume one - main report. Chapter 3 - Alcohol.

[17] Public Health Wales Observatory (2019). Alcohol in Wales (2019).

[18] Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety (2014). Adult Drinking Patterns in Northern Ireland 2013.

[19] Information Services Division Scotland (2019). Alcohol-Related Hospital Statistics Scotland 2018/19.

[20] Scottish Government (2018). Scottish Crime and Justice Survey 2017/18: Main Findings.

[21] Scottish Government (2019). Scottish Schools Adolescent Lifestyle and Substance Use Survey (SALSUS): Alcohol Report 2018.

[22] Public Health England (2019). Local Alcohol Profiles for England. Hospital admissions.

[23] NHS Digital (2019). Statistics on Alcohol, England 2019. Part 1: Alcohol-related hospital admissions.

[24] Office for National Statistics (2019). Alcohol-specific deaths in the UK: liver diseases and the impact of deprivation.

[25] Public Health England (2019). Local Alcohol Profiles for England. Alcohol-related NHS hospital admissions in England.

[26] Office for National Statistics (2019). Crime Survey for England and Wales. Nature of crime: robbery.

[27] Office for National Statistics (2019). Crime in England and Wales: Other related tables.

[28] Northern Ireland Department of Health (2017). Census of drug and alcohol treatment services in Northern Ireland 2017.

[29] NHS Digital (2019). Smoking, Drinking and Drug Use among Young People in England 2018.

[30] Public Health Wales Observatory (2014). Alcohol and health in Wales 2014.

[31] Office for National Statistics (2019). Crime Survey for England and Wales. Nature of crime tables, violence.

[32] Office for National Statistics (2019). Crime Survey for England and Wales. Estimates of personal and household crime, anti-social behaviour, and public perceptions, by police force area, year ending June 2019.

[33] Office for National Statistics (2019). Partner abuse in detail, England and Wales: year ending March 2018.

[34] Welsh Government (2019). Substance Misuse Delivery Plan 2019-2022.

[35] NHS Digital (2019). Health Survey for England, 2018: Adults' health related behaviours report (version 2).

[36] Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (2019). Alcohol-specific deaths 2008-2018.